National Parks Brazil
The IBAMA is the official organization to administrate and preserve the Brazilian natural environment.
The map shows the 5
main regions of Brazil and the 27 states.
|Monte Roraima||Monte Roraima National Park, created in 1989, covers an area of 116,000 hectares to the north of Brazil, in the state of Roraima on the border with Guyana and Venezuela. It is a region of beautiful savannah, intersected by rivers and waterfalls and is the location of one of the highest mountains in Brazil, Monte Roraima, 2,727 metres high. Shaped like a table, the Indians have named it "trepui". It is an immense plateau surrounded by savannah bordering the tropical forests of the Rivers Amazon and Arenoso. The mountain was the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Lost World".|
|Serra da Mocidade||O lugar é uma das regiões com maior diversidade biológica da Amazônia, pois fica entre dois biomas distintos: terrenos sazonalmente alagáveis da bacia do Rio Branco e trechos de terra firme sobre rochas Pré-Cambrianas.
A beleza cênica existente nos 350.960 mil hectares da reserva deu o nome do parque. Criado em 1998, o parque faz divisa com a reserva dos povos indígenas Yanomami, que habitam o local há muito tempo.
Localização: A unidade fica no município de Caracaraí, em Roraima.O acesso é feito em Boa Vista pela BR-174 seguindo mais 130 km de estrada asfaltada até Caracaraí. Chegando em Caracaraí, deve-se pegar a margem direita do rio Branco até o rio Água Boa do Univini, e navegar por aproximadamente cinco horas de barco. Atrativos Naturais: O parque ainda é novo e não está aberto para visitantes, mas suas belezas cênicas encantam os poucos privilegiados que podem entrar. Curiosidades: Está sendo estudada a possibilidade de o parque virar uma grande área para recreação.
|Viruá||Possui uma área de 227.011 ha. Está localizado no estado de Roraima, no município de Caracaraí. O acesso é feito através da BR-174 de Boa Vista até Caracaraí, e de lá, por via fluvial, através do rio Branco.
A unidade é nova e está em implantação, não estando ainda aberta à visitação pública.
Na sua maior parte, a área compreende uma vasta superfície praticamente plana, com predomínio de solos arenosos, e mal drenados, com grande quantidade de lagoas. Na sua parte norte, ocorrem morros residuais com altitudes modestas. Ao longo de sua extensão oeste, delimitada pelo rio Branco, há ocorrência de planícies aluvionares inundáveis, situação observada também em sua porção sul ao longo do rio Anauá. Possui alta heterogeniedade ambiental, com presença de Campos e Cerrados, Florestas Densas e Abertas, Serras Isoladas, com razoável diversidade e endemismo em sua flora. Existe uma diversidade de espécies registradas, aves migratórias como o tuiuiu (Jabiru mycteria) e a águia pescadora (Pandion haliaetus); aves relacionadas a ambientes encharcados como a garça branca (Egretta thula), o socó-boi (Tigrosoma lineatum), a jaçanã (Jaçanã jaçana) e outras em extinção como a onça pintada (Panthera onça), a suçuarana (Felis Pardalis), a anta (Tapirus terrestris) e outras.
in Amapá State it occupies an area of 619,000 hectares with predominant
terra firme dense forest, mangrove and a peninsula 150 km long which
stretching out 10km into the sea. It was created in 1980 and it
encompasses a large part of the Macapá-Oiapoque Fluvial Marine Plain in
quaternary soil with sand , silt, and clay sediments. Its area is
predominantely marine with an extensive plain formed by fluvial and marine
deposits, mangroves covered by savannahs and dense forest in contact with
terciary soil and mangroves. It is also constitues restingas being subject
to periodic floodings.
It is an area of difficult access due to the water and entangling of roots.
Its fauna is very rich and diverse because of habitat diversification. Standing out are the sea turtle and birds especially guará and flamingo close to extinction. Other bird species found in the park are ducks, herons and psitacideous. Among the important mammals there are the also endengered sea and river manatees. Racoons, otters, jaguars, guaribas, squirrel monkeys, capybaras, tapirs, giant otters, giant anteaters, great long-nosed armadillos, sucuaranas and red-brocket deers among others live in the park.
Relative humidity is higher than 80%. The area is of difficult access being reached from the coast or Cassiporé river.
|Montanhas do Tumucumaque||Tumucumaque Mountains National Park lies in a large and continuous belt of pristine forests of
3,870,000 hectares, an area equal to Belgium, in the northwestern portion of Brazil’s Amapá State, with a very small area inthe Pará State. It covers most of the boundary between Brazil and French Guyana. Created in August 2002, the park is part of a large
forest block composed of three indigenous lands (Tumucumaque, Land Waiapi, and
Rio Paru D’Oeste) and four protected areas (National Forest Amapá,
Sustainable Development Reserve do Rio Iratapuru, Ecological Station Jari and
Extractive Reserve do Rio Cajari) that altogether encompass around
11,000,000 hectares, one of the world’s largest continuous block of protected area. The park is estimated to harbor at least 37 lizard species, 350 birdspecies and 7 primate species. These numbers represent 42 percent, 31percent and 12 percent of all species of these respective taxonomic groups recorded so far in Brazil’s Amazonia. Several species
whose populations have declined in other parts of their ranges are also
present, such as the jaguar, giant anteater, giant armadillo, harpy eagle, the black spider monkey, the brown-bearded saki monkey and white-faced saki monkey. Several kinds of macaws, parrots, guans, hummingbirds
and large fruit-eating canopy bird species are still found in abundance.
|Serra da Cutia||Localiza-se no Município de Guajará-Mirim, a sudoeste do Estado de Rondônia, e faz fronteira com a Bolívia. As principais vias de acesso são de barco ou avião. Da cidade de Guajará-mirim, a 332 km da capital Porto Velho, a unidade está a aproximadamente 130 km em linha reta e, da cidade de Costa Marques, a 60 km, também em linha reta.
Ao norte, o parque faz limite com a Reserva Extrativista Estadual Rio Pacaás Novos, ao Sul com a Reserva Extrativista Estadual Rio Cautário e Terra Indígena Rio Guaporé, ao Leste com a porção da Reserva Extrativista Estadual Rio Cautário e a Oeste com a Reserva Biológica do Traçadal, Terra lndígena, Rio Pacaás Novos e Terra lndígena Rio Guaporé. Com uma área aproximada de 283.611 hectares, apresenta um relevo diversificado com, a oeste, Depressão do Guapré e Planícies fluviais, e, a leste, a Depressão da Amazônia.
A vegetação também é bem heterogênea, e apresenta áreas de Cerrado e áreas de Formação Pioneira, com vegetação influenciada por rios e lagos, além de áreas tensão ecológica entre a Floresta e o Cerrado. O visual é bem variado: ou totalmente aberto com predomínio de vegetação herbácea, ou mais fechado pelas altas e complexas Florestas. O parque possui uma rica diversidade de aves, e já foi registrada a ocorrência de 459 espécies de aves, muitas delas próprias da região.
|Pacaás Novos||This Park holds special
cultural significance for the indigenous groups that occupy this area, namely the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau and Uru-Pa-In nations.
The name Pacaas Novos is derived from the fact that the rubber exploiters hunted numerous pacas alongside the riverbanks of the streams in this area.
This Park covers an area of over 764,801 hectares with a perimeter of 650 Km and is located in the Rodonia State. Access can be made by land, air or water. By land, departing from Porto Velho, one follows BR-364 for 205 Km until reaching Ariquemes where you turn to the right on to BR-421 passing through Montenegro finally arriving in Campo Novo 110 Km later. From Campo Novo to the Park entrance, it is another 40 Km. Currently the Park is closed to the Public.
The foilage is an enormous mosaic. One finds extensive areas of savanna, located in the higheer areas, areas of forest cover that exist in valleys and hilly areas with grand areas of transistion betweeen forest and savanna.
Typical fauna is that found in the Amazon region, characterised by a great diversity of species from both geograhic formations (plateau forest and mountain.). The Park offers precious landscapes that could have great potential for turistic, ecological and scientific work.
|Serra do Divisor||In the Park’s interior and along the right side of the Rio Moa’s riverbank live the Nukini indigenous people. The existence of fossils along the banks of the Rio Jurua has been registered in both the Park and alongside the right-hand side of the river. The unit’s name is derived from an important geomorphologic characteristic that occurs where the water basins of the Rio Ucayali´s Middle Valley (Peru) and the Rio Jurua´s High Valley (Acre/Brazil) meet.
This Park covers an area of over 846,633 hectares and is located in the Acre State. Air access can be made with airtime of one and one half-hours and VARIG, TAVAJ and RICO all making flights form the capital Rio Branco to Cruzeiro do Sul. From Curzeiro do Sul to the Park, primary access is made by the Rio Moa. During the rainy season, the trip is made in hover craft in about 6 hours; where as, during the dry season, it can take as long as 4 days in canoe. The closest city is Cruzeiro do Sul. This Park is closed to the Public.
Tropical Open Forest incorporating two features, namely namely cypress extensions and palm tree extensions, covers most of the Park. The cypress forest is characterised by open spaces between trees, among which are included juá, castanha-de-periquito, taperebá, inharé, among others. The palm forest consists of densely populated and greatly varied palm trees. Among the most prevalent is the following paxiúba-lisa, patauá, açaí, jaci, murumuru, paxiúba-barriguda, inajá and the jarima
Due to the existence of fauna from diversified ecosystems, the composition of the Park´s fauna has not yet been registered.
The Park encounters problems with the following threats: uncontrolled human occupation, non-timber (rubber, palhas and cipo) and timber exploitation, agriculture, cattle ranches, deforestation, livestock production, subsistence hunting and fishing, animal skin and fur commercialisation, fossil and pumice extractions and human-imposed alterations to riverflow.
|Do Jaú||This Park has a large protected area of 2,272,000 hectares and a perimeter of 540km. It is located in Bay of Rio Jau in the Amazonas State between the Novo Airao and Barcelos municipalities. River access can be made by river over the Rio Negro (single motor-one hour trip, double motor 45 minutes or helicopter 1 hour and 10 minutes), by land the trip can be made over the Manacapuru/Novo Airao highway. The closest city is Novo Airao and is about 150 km from the capital.
This Park offers all the amazing aspects of the Amazonia Forest with its biodiversity of flora and fauna. River tourism can occur in a light fashion on the Rio Carabinani.
The geography presents 4 distinct forms: areas of water accumulation, flat areas, hills and inter-river tables. This Park is represented by massive vegetation, mostly composed of dense tropical forest or open forests with canopy trees, dense open or arbust. Leguminoceae is the family with the most number of species followed by the Annonaceae, Moraceae and Burseraceae.
Isolated studies reveal an enormous diversity of species of fish, turtles, amphibians, lizards, serpents and mammals. Threatened species include the jacaretinga, tartaruga da Amazônia, tracará, jacaré-açu, gavião real, uacari-preto, ariranha, gato-maracajá and the panther.
|Pico da Neblina||This Park covers an area of over 2,200,000 hectares and is located in the Amazonas State. The travel options are limited to air and water. River access can be made through the Itamirim stream and the Cauaburi and Sa rivers. The closest city is Sao Gabriel de Cachoeira, which is, located about 900 Km from the capital.
In addition to the extraordinary beauty of the interplay of the mountains and flowers, Brazil’s highest apex is found in the eastern part of this Park with an altitude of 3014 m. The time of the year with the least amount of rainfall is August through December.
The area´s geography is composed of equatorial lowlands and dominated by “tabuleiros”, replete with peaks and mountains, and the highest altitude reaches 3014 m, Pico de Neblina.
The vegetation coverage consists of a Dense, Tropical and Humid Open Forest. This feature presents uniform coverage with trees reaching 25-30 meters in diameters while also including trees characteristic of the north-east: palm tress, cypresses, buriti and yellow rubber tree and tamaquete to name a few.
This Park has a animal population characteristic of the Amazon. Among the mammal population, there exists some animals threatened with extinction: including the macari-preto, the cachorro-do-mato-vinagre and the onça-pintada. Of the fowl under threat, there is the gavião-pega-macaco, o gavião-de-penacho as well as the galo-da-serra.
intending travellers to Amazonia, the greatest spectacle offered by nature
is its exuberant flora. Despite the huge diversity of wildlife, fauna is
difficult to see owing to the characteristics of tropical forests.
However, the estimated over 2,000 species of fish makes Amazonia one of
the main Brazilian destinations for sport fishing and watching ornamental
fish. From the cultural point of view, the greatest interest lies in the
traditional communities - or forest peoples: rubber gatherers, 'caboclos'
(mixed bloods), riverbank dwellers and indigenous communities. Visits to
the latter are prohibited.
The best way of getting to know this water world is by means of river cruises, or by staying at one of the various jungle lodges. Amazonia may be visited from Manaus, a city situated on the left bank of the Negro River, near the confluence with the Solimões River. These two rivers form the Amazon in a natural spectacle of rare beauty, the "meeting of waters", in which the dark waters of the Negro meet the muddy waters of the Solimões and they run side by side without mixing for miles and miles.
Another important way into Amazonia is Belém, the largest city on the Equator, situated on one of the branches of the Amazon River, near its outlet into the Atlantic. The capital of the State of Pará is also near Marajó Island, where there are many possibilities for ecotourism routes along the rivers, channels, riverbanks and mangrove swamps on this island with an area equal to Denmark and larger than the State of Rio de Janeiro.
Other important access cities to Amazonia are Alta Floresta, Boa Vista, Macapá, Rio Branco and Santarém.
|Serra do Pardo||Serra do Pardo National Park (445,000 ha)|
National Park of Lençóis is an ecological paradise with 155,000 hectares
of dunes, rivers, lakes and wetlands. A singular ecological phenomenon, it
has been formed during thousands of years of wind movement. The landscape
is astonishing and wonderful: a white sandy carpet without end in sight,
as if you were on a desert. Unlike a desert however, there is plenty of
rain and rivers in the region. It is the rain that actually creates the
Lençóis and its landscape. The rain fills the uncountable lakes and the
magnificent landscape. Some of the most famous lakes are the Lagoa Azul
and the Lagoa Bonita for their beauty and excellent swimming conditions.
Not to miss in your trip are the villages of Caburé, Atins and Mandacaru.
|Araguaia||The cultural and historical aspects of the park can be attributed to the indigenous groups living in the area the Carajas and Javaes. This park covers an area of 557,714 hectares. It is located in the northern third of the Bananal Island, in the southeast of Tocantins State- forming part of the Pium and Lagoa da Confusão municipalities. From Brasilia, one drives along the BR-153 (Belem-Brasilia) to the Nova Rosalandia City. Next one takes the TO-255, passing Cristalandia (about 30 km), for about 113 km, with about 55 km of unpaved highway. From Palmas, the state capital, one travels along TO-080 in direction of Paraíso do Tocantins and then keep to BR-153 heading towards Nova Rosalandia, following the directions described above from that city. The closest cities are Pium, Tocantins (120 km from Palmas), Cristalândia, Tocantins (140 Km from Palmas), Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins (190 Km from the capital) e Santa Terezinha, Mato Grosso (600 Km from Palmas).
In this park, one can travel on existing roads and paths near the main office and can go on land and river excursions in the eastern part of park, accompanied by park functionary. On the trip one can take pictures and observe the different environments and landscapes as well as the abundant groups of animals and the rare species of flora. Near the Araguaia Indigenous Park there is an excellent lookout for sunsets, and during the dry season there are many riverside beaches.
An extensive plain, formed by sediments, constitutes the Park. It is also periodically inundated when the Arauaia and the Javaes Rivers overflow. The Park is situated in the transition belt between the Amazon Rainforest and the Savannah, predominated with fields. The Park’s fauna is very heterogeneous, predominately connected to the water medium. The wetland dear, specie threatened with extinction, also suffers from cattle diseases. It is rich in foul, not only in abundance but also in diversity.
|Serra da Capivara||The
Parque Nacional da Serra da Capivara declared a World Cultural Treasure, by Unesco, was created to
protect one of the largest archeological treasures in the world -
thousands of pre-historical inscriptions made on rock walls, about 12
thousand years ago. Paintings depict aspects of daily life, rites and
ceremonies of ancient inhabitants of the area, including also pictures of
animals, some of which are already extinct.
During excavations undertaken in Serra da Capivara, researchers found tools, traces of ceramic instruments and old burials. Studies undertaken on these discoveries have led researchers to believe that humans may have started populating the Americas more than 30 years ago. Such estimate would go against current theories, according to which humans would have occupied the Americas around 12 thousand years ago. Ancient paintings and objects can be seen in some archeological sites open to visitors, among more than 700 sites available in the park.
|Serra das Confusões||Parque
Nacional da Serra das Confusões. Com 500 mil hectares, é a maior área
protegida de Caatinga do país. Possui inúmeros sítios arqueológicos em
suas cavernas e grutas, com gravuras de grande valor histórico nos paredões
rochosos. É habitado por várias espécies ameaçadas de extinção, como
tatu-canastra, tamanduá-bandeira, onça parda e onça pintada.
uma área aproximada de 729.813 hectares, o Parque Nacional das Nascentes
do Rio Parnaíba abrange 4 estados brasileiros: Piauí, Maranhão, Bahia e
Tocantins. Com sua criação, que ocorreu principalmente para proteger as
cabeceiras do Rio Parnaíba, parte da Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra
da Tabatinga tornou-se porção do parque.
main attraction of this park resides in its impressing rocky formations.
Your imagination will run wild gazing at these exotic geological
monuments. Some of them look incredibly like animals, such as the stones
of the Elephant, the Turtle; others resemble people, like the head of
Emperor Dom Pedro, and one of the Three Wise Men.
has several of the most beautiful beaches in Brazil, with many sand dunes
and rocky coasts, coconut groves and an incredibly blue sea. Located
310 km west of Fortaleza, Ceara’s capital, it is almost isolated and
access still depends on special vehicles capable of crossing the sand
dunes that separate it from the nearest road. Its streets are not paved
and electricity is recent. To preserve the environment, an enormous area
around the village was transformed into Ubajara and Jericoacoara National
Park. Although it was founded by the hippies in the 70s, Jeri, as it is
called today, still preserves the features of a small fishing village.
Over the past three decades, the relationship between foreigners and
inhabitants, which transformed their simple houses into inns and
restaurants, has been harmonious, although they continue to practice
subsistence fishing. Because of its fame, Jericoacoara now receives
Brazilian and foreigner tourists that enjoy its beautiful beaches, tour
the extensive coast on dune buggies, and sail on clean blue water lakes. A
good program is to watch the beautiful sunset from the top of a sand dune.
At night, visit the restaurants to try some of the delicious dishes
prepared with fish and seafood. After dinner, the tourists can enjoy an
authentic “forró” at the local bars. Those who visit Jeri beach must
also visit Jijoca de Jericoacoara, a city only 20 km away, with natural
beauties and constant wind to please those who practice water sports such
as kitesurf and windsurf.
|Ubajara||The smallest of the 35 national parks of Brazil, covering an area of 563 hectares, the greatest treasure of the Ubajara National Park, in Ceará, is the Ubajara grotto. Set in a hillside in the Ibiapaba mountains, 320 kilometres from Fortaleza, the grotto has impressive stalactite and stalagmite formations, the result of nature's patient work with limestone and water over many thousands of years - each centimetre of crystallised growth takes three years to form.
Access to the grotto is by chairlift. The park has waterfalls and paths through the forest. Visits are supervised by Ibama, the national body for environmental conservation, and must be arranged in advance. Other attractions in the Ibiapaba mountains include Morro do Céu, 820 metres high, and Pedra de Itagurussu, the source of the Pirangi waterfall.
in the municipalities of Buíque, Tupanatinga, Inajá and Ibimirim,
comprising both the ranch land and semi-arid regions, the Catimbau Valley
is a mixture of an archeological site and an eco-tourism park with 90
thousand square kilometers of cliffs, valleys, hills, cactus land and
forest, traced by rustic trails. Considered the second largest
archeological site in Brazil and the first in terms of the historic value
for cave and rock drawings, the area is in the process of becoming a
The Catimbau Valley has geologic formations dating back 150 million years, with the most diverse types and colors of sandstone. Its highest elevation measures 1,060 meters and is in the Serra de Jerusalém hills. Among its 200 thousand hectares of area, there are nearly two thousand caves and 28 known cavern-cemeteries, where one can come across quick sand, natural springs, mineral water and waterfalls. In the region that includes the town of Venturosa, there are areas for camping, excursions, fresh-water diving and radical sports.
|Fernando do Noronha||
At 550 kilometres from Recife (a little over an hour by plane), the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha is made up of 21 islands and islets, which rise up from the depths of a sea which is 4,000 metres deep. The islands are 26 km2 of virtually untouched nature and are under a strict conservation regime. Fernando de Noronha is the main island, full of natural viewing points from which to observe the beauties of the place. It is the only inhabited island and has 16 beaches of dazzling white sand, warm clear waters, shoals of brightly coloured fish and acrobatic dolphins. Natural pools, sea turtles, seaweed and sponges complete the picture. The archipelago is a real paradise for swimmers and divers. The crystal clear waters, in which one can see to a depth of 50 metres, allow the visitor to study 15 of the 18 known species of coral, or simply contemplate the rich marine life.
|Chapada dos Guimarães||The
Chapada dos Guimarães National Park is in the State of Mato Grosso 65
kilometres from the city of Cuiabá. Situated north of the Pantanal, it is
a jagged continuous escarpment of reddish sandstone with drops of up to
400 metres. Considered as the geodesic centre of South America, rivers
rise there which go to form two of the largest and most important river
basins in the world - the Amazon and the Plata. Situated at 800 metres
above sea level the Chapada possesses a pleasant climate and can reach low
temperatures in winter, mainly in July and August. A region of rare
beauty, it also has beautiful waterfalls and rock formations, covered by
small forests, clear fields and open pasture with stunted vegetation.
|Pantanal||The Pantanal is an ecological paradise in the heart of Brazil. It is the planet’s largest flooded lowland, and the world’s third biggest environmental reserve. Its ecological importance is enormous because it is home to one of the richest ecosystems ever found, with periodically flooded seasonal woods. It displays the largest concentration of neo-tropical fauna, including several endangered species – mammals, reptiles and fish – and it also serves as habitat for an enormous variety of native birds as well as those coming from other areas in the Americas. The Pantanal is one of the best places in Brazil for flora and fauna observation and for fishing – only permitted between March and October – due to its abundance of animals.|
|Chapada dos Veadeiros||The
Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park in Goiás State was created in 1961
under the name Tocantins National Park and the name was changed to
Veadeiros in 1972. It is situated at varying altitudes between 1,300 and
1,500 metres, which act as watersheds of the Maranhão and Paraná river
basins. Although relatively elevated, the typical vegetation of the park
represented mainly by fields and paths, with riverside copses on the banks
of the water courses. Those fields and paths contain very fine species of
palm trees, in particular the burity, growing near springs and water
courses. On rocky outcrops rupicolous vegetation predominates, with
various species of orchids and bromeliads. Of the existing fauna, the
lobo-guará, deer, rhea, king vulture and various species of sparrow-hawk
are worthy of note.
great attraction of the Emas National Park, in Goiás State, is its steep
landscape characteristic of plateaux in addition to fauna that is easy to
observe. There one can see rheas, lobos-guará, great anteaters, crested
seriemas, stags, deer and birds of prey such as the rufous headed falcon
and the laughing falcon. With some luck one can also see felines. The
great concentration of termites' nests, which accounts for the massive
presence of anteaters, presents a curious and beautiful phenomenon: at
certain times of the year it offers a night time spectacle when giving off
a blue-greenish phosphorescent light produced by small larvae of termites
which grow there. The best time to visit is in the dry season between
April and October. In the sections of denser vegetation one may observe
curassows and toucans, in addition to primates such as apes and cebus
monkeys. Large snakes, such as the anaconda and boa constrictor are
plentiful. The ecotourist infrastructure is precarious.
Emas National Park is the largest Cerrado (savannah) national park and probably the last to protect populations of grassland jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and hoary foxes (Dusicyon vetelus) in this cerrado biome.
National Park in the Federal District is famous for its water resources
and offers visitors pools of running mineral water and leisure areas.
There is the watershed of three important hydrographic basins - the
Amazon, Plata and São Francisco - which occupy a central position in
relation to the Brazilian territory. In the park there is the Santa Maria
Dam, with an area of around 800 hectares and this provides a drinking
water supply for the Brazilian capital. With typical Savanna
vegetation, the park has fields and riverside copses along the
watercourses, with a predominance of trees such as the caesalpinia,
pau-terra, caryocar and characteristic species of shrubs such as the
custard-apple, lobeira and tree-lily. In the riverside copses there are
palm trees such as the burity. Fauna, threatened by the strong human
presence, by the reduction of its habitat due to urban pressure and the
increase of the farming and grazing frontier, still presents species such
as the lobo-guará, great anteater, giant armadillo and Ozotocerus
bezoarticus deer, Birdwatching is possible, especially the rhea, crested
seriema and the toco toucan.
|Serra de Itabaiana||Situada
entre os municípios de Areia Branca e Itabaiana e a 50 quilômetros da
capital, fica a Serra de Itabaiana que se mantém protegida e intacta das
ações do homem. Caracteriza-se pela sucessão de elevações atingindo
670 metros no topo; preserva remanescentes de Mata Atlântica e diversos
ecossistemas (caatinga, restinga, cerrado e campo rupestre).
Todo o conjunto da serra constitui-se importante Estação Ecológica protegida e monitorada pelo IBAMA, as visitas são acompanhadas de guias autorizadas pelo órgão. Outras atrações irresistíveis na região são a Gruta da Ribeira, o Poço das Moças, a Sala do Rio Negro, a Capela, a Cachoeira Véu de Noiva e a Trilha do Caldeirão.
|Chapada Diamantina||The Chapada Diamantina National Park is without doubt one of the most beautiful examples of the ecosystem of the Savanna. Situated in the State of Bahia relatively close to the Brazilian coastline, in the municipalities of Lençóis, Mucujé, Palmeiras, Andaraí and Ibroara, it was founded in 1985. Known as Chapada Diamantina, it is a region of high plains surrounded by mountains. Owing to its relief and climate which influence the flora and fauna there are rupicolous fields, rocky areas, forests and coppice, making it a paradise for walkers and nature lovers.|
|Descobrimento||O Parque Nacional do Descobrimento, localizado no município de Prado (BA), foi criado em 1999 para proteger um dos últimos remanescentes de floresta ombrófila densa (Mata Atlântica) que existem nas planícies litorâneas brasileiras.
Possui aproximadamente 22.000 hectares, constituindo o maior fragmento de Mata Atlântica protegido do Nordeste.
Apresenta um elevado grau de biodiversidade, endemismos (espécies que só ocorrem nesta região) e espécies ameaçadas de extinção. É o habitat de espécies como a onça-pintada, o mutum e a anta, animais que necessitam de grandes áreas para sobrevivência.
Desde abril de 2003 o Parque está ocupado por famílias da etnia Pataxó. São quatro aldeias situadas no interior da unidade, em quatro localidades distintas.
|Monte Pascoal||Monte Pascoal, a peak 586 m high, was the first land sighted when the Portuguese discovered Brazil in 1500. The Park was dedicated in 1961 at which time it covered 22,500 ha; the Park's area was later reduced to 14,000 ha, with most of the excluded territory given to the local Pataxós Indian tribe. Some of the 14,000 ha, especially the part nearest the coast, have been exploited by the Pataxós and are disturbed. The park lies ca. 250 km south of Ilhéus and extends westward from the coast 30 km to Monte Pascoal. The vegetation of the eastern part of the Park is restinga and mangrove and of the western part, southern Bahian wet forest over laterite.
|Pau Brasil||Esse é um dos mais novos Parques Nacionais do país. De criação recente, ainda não tem estrutura para receber visitantes, o que deve ser providenciado em breve, segundo o Ibama.
Localização: Município de Porto Seguro (BA)
O parque, juntamente com o Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal e o do Descobrimento, forma um corredor ecológico responsável pela preservação da fauna e da flora na região do descobrimento, que abriga, além dos poucos exemplares existentes de pau-brasil, um patrimônio histórico e cultural fundamental para o nosso país.
Possui uma grande variedade de espécies em extinção como o Jacarandá, o Parajú, o Sassafrás, a onça-pintada, a harpia e o macaco-preto. No parque existem mais de 200 árvores em ambiente original.
is a nature-gifted city in the South of Bahia. It was the first sea park created in Brazil, in 1983.
Abrolhos shelters Brazil's richest coral fauna that is one of the rarest
in the world. Five volcanic islands and a group of coral reef comprise the
archipelago that has one of the largest fish gathering in the globe, both
in quantity and variety. You can find in Abrolhos all kinds of fish from
the South Atlantic.
From August to November, Abrolhos is visited by the humpback whale, which performs through leaps and characteristic sounds. A rare mammal species, the humpback whale can measure up to 15 meters and weighs about 30 tons. A dazzling show. They say that the name, Abrolhos, has its origin in the Portuguese idiom "Abra os Olhos" ("Open Your Eyes"), an ever-present warning in ancient Portuguese nautical letters addressed to navigators in that region, because of the dangers it has due to great number of underwater reefs.
All the fauna and flora, either inside or outside the water, is under protection of the IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources). That's why any kind of fishing, hunting or environment-harmful activity is forbidden in the park area. Abrolhos hides the greatest surprises underwater: pleasant temperature clear waters, shipwrecks and a great diversity of marine fauna make it one of the best places for practicing diving in the whole world.
|Cavernas do Peruaçu||Compreendendo
dois ecossistemas distintos, a vegetação do Parque é bastante peculiar.
O Cerrado apresenta uma fisionomia com todas as suas variantes (cerradão,
campo cerrado, campo limpo, campo sujo e campo úmido) nas encostas mais
suaves. Entre as espécies mais comuns estão: o Barbatimão, o Pau-santo,
a Aroeira-do-sertão, o Tingui, o Murici, o Pequizeiro, o Jatobá, o
Araticum e a Barriguda-de-espinho ou Embaré.
Já a Caatinga é constituída por uma fração de vegetação arbórea, relacionada ao compartimento de cimeira (parte superior dos morros e serras), composta por estratos arbustivos com cipós, cactáceas, bromeliáceas e gramíneas. Uma segunda fração é representada pela Floresta Caducifólia, ou Mata Seca, com espécies arbustivas decíduas, adaptadas aos solos alcalinos e à falta d’água que os terrenos calcários não conseguem reter, geralmente associadas ao compartimento cárstico.
As matas de galeria e as veredas de buritis aparecem nas áreas úmidas completando a vegetação do Parque. Nota-se que na área existem microclimas diferenciados em decorrência destas variações.
|Serra da Canastra||The Serra da Canastra is the name of an area of 71.525 hectares in the south-western part of the Brazilian state Minas Gerais. It consists of a plateau with typical "campo rupestre" and "cerrado"-like vegetation, meaning a shrubby and dry savannah or bush landscape. The Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra was inaugurated in 1972 to protect this environment and its inhabitants, for example the Giant Anteater (tamanduá-bandeira, Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the Crested Caracara (Gavião carcará, Polyborus plancus), the Maned Wolf (lobo-guará, Crysocyon brachyurus) and the Pampas Deer (veado-campeiro, Ozotocerus bezoarticus).
|Serra da Cipó||In Minas Gerais in the South East is the Serra do Cipó National Park which has trails that lead to pre-historic caves with rock inscriptions and carvings of fish and animals that according to archeologists were made more than 8,000 years ago, and a 15,000 year old cemetery that is one of the oldest known in the world. There are also innumerous waterfalls and kilometers of paths that are crossed by streams and rivulets and surrounded by spectacular landscapes for the more adventurous hiker. The highlights are the Cachoeira da Farofa (Farofa Waterfall) and the hikes to the Cânion das Bandeirinhas (Banderinhas Canyon) and to the Cachoeiras do Gavião and Andorinhas (Gavião and Andorinhas Waterfalls) The park also offers an ideal environment for rappel, canyoning, climbing and kayaking.
|DAS SEMPRE VIVAS||Sempre Vivas||Com 121 mil ha, o Parque situa-se numa região riquíssima em água, com inúmeras cachoeiras e caracterizada pela presença de matas de galeria e campos de altitude, na Serra do Espinhaço.
O nome dado ao Parque refere-se às inúmeras espécies de sempre-vivas, pequenas flores típicas da região e endêmicas em Minas Gerais (só existem naquele local). A coleta dessas plantas para exportação, é responsável pelo sustento de inúmeras famílias da região, que no entanto, praticam uma atividade extremamente predatória, utilizando fogo e desconhecendo completamente os riscos de extinção das mesmas.
Após coletadas, as plantas são vendidas para exportadores em Diamantina a preços baixíssimos, que por sua vez as exportam principalmente para o Japão, a preço em dólar. A exploração é ilegal, mas permitida pelo governo.
|GRANDE SERTÃO VEREDAS||Grande Sertão Veredas||Minas Gerais|
|DOS PONTÕES CAPIXABAS||Pontões Capixabas||Espirito Santo|
|DA SERRA DA BODOQUENA||Serra da Bodoquena||Mato Grosso do Sul|
|DA SERRA DA BOCAINA||Serra da Bocaina||Sao Paulo|
|DE ILHA GRANDE||Ilha Grande||Rio de Janeiro|
|DA SERRA DOS ORGÃOS||Serra dos Orgãos||
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
|DE ITATIAIA||Itatiaia||The Itatiaia National Park, the first Brazilian park, created in 1913, is situated on the boundary of the States of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. With an area of 12,000 hectares, its annual average temperature varies from 20°C to 22°C, with maxima of 36°C and minima of 0°C. In this there is the Agulhas Negras massif, the high point of which is the 2,787 metres high Pico do Itatiaia. In its various stratifications, in forests of rare beauty, there are orchids, lianas, cacti, mosses, lichens, Brazilian spider flowers, fuchsias, lilies and begonias which delight observers of tropical flora. Its fauna, although scant, is mainly made up of birds. The Park provides various options for mountaineering in the Peaks of Agulhas Negras and Prateleiras, the most favourable season being the dry winter months - from June to September - when all days are clear.|
|RESTINGA DE JURUBATIBA||Restinga de Jurubatiba||Rio de Janeiro|
|DO IGUAÇU||Iguaçu||The Iguaçu National Park is one of the best known Brazilian parks, as it contains one of the great spectacles of nature: the Iguaçu Falls. Its area is covered by sub-tropical rain forest, with large trees and an enormous variety of epiphytes, especially bromeliads and orchids. The fauna of the park is quite representative, although many species are reduced to small populations, such as the tapir, capybara, otter and the crab eating racoon. Among the large cats, which are rare and difficult to observe, the forest hides jaguars and cougars. Also in the region, sport fishing may be practised almost the whole year round in rivers famous for the presence of Salminus maxillosus and Prochilodus. There is a de luxe hotel in its interior.|
|DA SERRA DO ITAJAÍ||Serra do Itajaí||Santa Catarina|
|DE SÃO JOAQUIM||São Joaquim||Santa Catarina|
|DA LAGOA DO PEIXE||Lagoa do Peixe||
Rio Grande do Sul
|DA SERRA GERAL||Serra Geral||Rio Grande do Sul|
|Aparados da Serra||One hundred and eighty six kilometres from Porto Alegre, near the frontier with the state of Santa Catarina, in the mountainous region known as Campos de Cima da Serra is Cambará do Sul, a district that includes the Itaimbezinho canyon set in the Aparados da Serra National Park. In this freak of nature, the mountains are separated from each other by almost two hundred and fifty kilometres of vertical walls that are seven hundred and twenty metres deep and with a breadth varying between one hundred and two thousand metres. Looking out from the Itaimbezinho canyon on a sunny day it is possible to see the Torres sea and the beach to the north of the state where the craggy cliffs, caverns and enormous boulders make it one of the most attractive landscapes in the southern region.|
(Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis)
is the official organization to administrate and preserve the Brazilian
natural environment. They have the right to take measures on federal,
state and municipal level.
|Estação Ecológica:||Preservation of nature and scientific research. No public entrance.|
|Reserva Biológica:||Integral preservation of the natural balance and biological diversity without human interference.|
|Parque Nacional:||Preservation of natural ecosystems and scenery, scientific research, educational activities and ecological recreation.|
|Monumento Natural:||Preservation of natural locations with high degree of rarity or with unique beauty.|
|Refúgio de Vida Silvestre:||Protection
of natural environment of local flora and migrating fauna.
|Área de Proteção Ambiental:||Areas with a certain degree of human occupation that depend on the natural environment. Objective is to maintain a disciplined process of occupation, maintain the quality of life and assure prolonged use of natural resources.|
|Área de Relevante Interesse Ecológico:||Small areas with little human occupation and with extraordinary species or a rare local ecosystem. To find compatibility between human use and biological conservation.|
|Floresta Nacional:||Areas covered of predominantly native species of forest with the objective of prolonged exploration of natural resources.|
|Reserva Extrativista:||Protect local human populations that completely depend on small scale agricultural farming and breeding small animals.|
|Reserva de Fauna:||Areas that are adequate to study the prolongation of exploring fauna resources.|
|Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável:||Areas with traditional human occupation, which is adapted to local ecological conditions and depending on the diversity of natural resources.|
|Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural:||Private area with the objective to conserve the biological diversity.|
Some parques are open only with Ibama permission:
Grande Sertão Veredas
Pico da Neblina
Restinga de Jurubatuba
Serra da Bocaina
Serra da Mocidade
Serra das Confusões
Serra do Divisor